Oral stomatitis

Stomatitis is an inflammatory disease of the oral mucosa with a different symptoms. It happens as an independent disease and incidence of these diseases of an organ or organism.

It has been scientifically proven that almost all pathological changes in the oral cavity are often signs of metabolic disorders, decreased immunity (stress) or various other diseases of the body. It can be a viral infection, fungal or bacterial.

Oral mucosa is resistant to many extrinsic factor: chemical, physical, thermal, and is well restored. Therefore the sooner you visit a doctor and diagnoses what kind of stomatitis you have the faster recovered from an illness.

If you postpone the visit to the doctor and the process develops into a chronic or acute phase it will be more difficult to cure it. Important: stomatitis occurs very quickly, general feeling unwell (fever) and accompanied by pain while eating and not only.

Manifestation of stomatitis

Stomatitis manifests itself in different ways: from small vesicles on the mucous membrane to huge ulcers that leave scars during healing. Usually the patient complains of a burning sensation of the oral mucosa, itching, pain when brushing teeth or eating food.

Visually the mucous membrane is red, slightly swollen. Salivation increases. Fever often rises and lymph nodes are swell. Seek dental advice if you see any of the symptoms. Stomatitis is a medical condition that must be treated by a specialist.

Causes of stomatitis

The main causes of stomatitis:

  • low on B vitamins
  • mucosal trauma (poor-quality fillings or poor-quality fixed or removable dental prosthesis, very solid food, eating food that is too hot or too acidic)
  • decrease in immunity after any illness or stress
  • violation of hygiene (insufficient washing of hands and / or products)
  • allergic reactions of the body (dental prostheses or various drugs including sodium lauryl sulfate in toothpaste)
  • frequent using of antibiotics
  • complications after diseases of the gastrointestinal tract as a co-morbidity viral, bacterial or fungal disease (herpes, scarlet fever etc.).

Сharacteristics of stomatitis in children

If you see that your child is capricious and has a fever please look into his mouth and make sure that there are or are not bright red gums or white spots on the mucous.

If you paid attention in time then you can see small bubbles that burst in a day and form white aphthaes with a red interface. Often in childhood there are such stomatitis:

  • children under one year old
  • candidal stomatitis, from 1 to 3 years
  • old stomatitis, older children aphthous and allergic stomatitis.

The most often occur of stomatitis

Herpetic stomatitis. It occurs with the herpes simplex virus associated with a decrease in immunity. It is characterized by seasonality (winter-spring, summer-autumn) and characterized by the appearance of small bubbles on the mucous membrane, which burst and form aphthae, which can cluster into one large erosive aphtha. It is accompanied by pain, itching and burning of the oral mucosa.

Bacterial stomatitis often occurs when the mucous membrane is infected with staphylococcus, streptococcus. It characterized by the appearance of purulent ulcers, cracks in the corners of the mouth.

Allergic stomatitis occurs as a reaction of the body to an allergen which further leads to infection of the oral mucosa. The most often it manifests as roseola (redness of the mucous membrane), edema or burning.

Oral moniliasis often occurs after prolonged using of antibiotics that disrupt the microflora of the body. It is characterized by the whitish coating on the mucous membrane which after removed forms very painful ulcers.

Presentation of stomatitis

We can divide stomatitis nto types:

Catarrhal (or incipience) is characterized by redness of the oral mucosa in the form of macules (roseola) which cause discomfort. As usual the temperature does not rise in the incipience stage. If at this stage you do not consult a dentist then catarrhal stomatitis can turn into a more severe form.

Necrotic stomatitis (pyostomatitis) appears when immunity decrease and secondary infection of the oral mucosa. Aphthae appear on the mucosa, ulcers that are filled with serofluid or purulent with a bright red edging. The edges local above the mucosa. The symptoms for this phase: fever, lymph-node hyperplasia, headache, burning in the mouth, hypersalivation. The treatment of such stomatitis is long (from two weeks or more) and expensive.

If this form of stomatitis is not treated the disease spreads to other organs and systems.

Lingering recurrent aphthous stomatitis is another form of stomatitis that is also dangerous like the previous ones. Most often appears with a decrease in immunity and in the presence of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The origin of a disease has not yet been fully studied. From the name of the disease we can see that this is a chronic infection, often repeated (recurrent), elements of the blennosis, there are aphthae on the tongue, cheeks, palate, which in the acute phase merge into one large and painful (often on palate) aphthae. The temperature rises. To prevent this disease the patient should be cured chronic diseases.

Stomatitis treatment

On-treatment first of all to diagnose the type of stomatitis and its form. Treatment depends you see the doctor, the presence of primary or secondary eruptions on the oral mucosa and other factors. In the treatment of bacterial stomatitis doing inoculation,medical prescription: antibiotics, probiotics to restore microflora, anti-inflammatory, analgesic drugs, febrifuge.

The treatment of herpetic stomatitis: antiviral drugs, anti-inflammatory, anesthetic salve or sprays. We often use laser or ozone therapy in our practice.

In the treatment of oral moniliasis sowing to determine mycosis. After this as a rule the doctor recommend a special diet (without sugar rush), antifungal drugs and immunocorrectors.

Treatment of lingering recurrent aphthous stomatitis: antihistamines, special diet, immunocorrectors, keratoplasty and pain relieving sprays or salve.

Treatment of allergic stomatitis is basically the elimination of the allergen that solves the problem. While at the same time the doctor administered antihistamines (antiallergic) and symptomatic treatment is use.

Prevention of stomatitis

Prevention will allow us to avoid relapses and for this we need to follow just a few rules throughout the day:

  • hygiene procedures (washing hands), oral cavity sanation (absence of carious teeth and dental deposits, high-quality orthopedic constructions);
  • healthy and balanced nutrition thorough individual oral hygiene (replacement of toothbrushes every 3 months) professional dental hygiene (2 times a year).

Maksym Makarenko

Максим Макаренко Speciality: surgery, implantology, periodontology and prosthetics
Novomostytska st., 25B
Kyiv, Ukraine, 04074
Mon - Fri: 09:00 - 19:00
Sat - Sun: 09:00 - 19:00
sin. 05.01.2021 № 23/21/М